Napoleon suffered defeat at Waterloo by a volcanic eruption?
Volcanic ash released into the atmosphere by a volcanic explosion in Indonesia may have indirectly contributed to Napoleon’s defeat at the Battle of Waterloo, according to researchers at Imperial College London.
June in 1815 was exceptionally rainy. Fatal weather conditions and the fact that the Battle of Waterloo was fought in marshy, muddy areas resulted in Napoleon Bonaparte’s defeat in battle against coalition forces led by the Duke of Wellington. Historians agree on this. But such weather conditions did not come from nowhere.
Two months before the battle thatóra changed the course of European history, there was a powerful explosion of the Indonesian volcano Tambora on the island of Sumbawa. As a result, 100 ty. people. Huge clouds of ashów, które got through inótime into the atmosphere, caused weather turbulence so significant that this year was called the „year without summer”.
Electrically charged popiół volcanic activity has affected the ionosphere, górna layer of the atmosphere responsible for cloud formation. This gave a boost leading to the formation of a thick layer of clouds, whichóra caused heavy and prolonged rains across Europe – think British scientists. And this played a significant role in the defeat of the French emperor.
Researchersów from Imperial College London were published in the journal „Geology” and may confirm the link between the volcanic eruption and the defeat of Napoleon’s troops.
This publication indicates that volcanic eruptionsóin can eject ashół much higher than previously thought – even to an altitude of 100 kilometersów. – Previously, geologists believed that ashóvolcanic roosting in the lower layers of the atmosphere. However, our research shows that piótoad ashów could even reach górthern layers of the atmosphere powered by electrical forces – said Matthew Genge of Imperial College London, author of the publication.
A series of military actions carried out by the zespó³ Genge experimentów showed that electrostatic forces can lift popiół much higher than previously thought. Researchers have created a computer model to calculate how the highly electrically charged popiół volcanic móheads to rise. They discovered that particles of dustóIn less than 0.2 micrometers, they could reach as far as the ionosphere.
– Piótoad dustóvolcanic eruptions may have negative electrical charges. Thusób stem of the pióToad dust repels the smallest particles of ashóin, propelling them and carrying them high into the góhe different layers of the atmosphere. This looks very similar to repulsive magnetsów – explained Genge.
The results of experiments conducted by British scientistsów seem to be confirmed by historical records of other large volcanic eruptions. Weather records were not meticulously kept in 1815, so to test his concept Genge used measurements taken during another powerful explosion thatóra took place in 1883 and happened róIndonesia as well. This is about the Krakatau eruption.
Genge found róhe reports of ionospheric disturbances following the 1991 eruption of the Pinatubo volcano in the Philippines, whichóre may have been caused by electrically charged ashół in the ionosphere. In addition, after the eruption of Krakatau, a special type of clouds appeared much more frequently – silver clouds. They form in the ionosphere and are rare. Genge suggests that these clouds provide evidenceów for electrostatic levitation of ash from large volcanic eruptions.
– Victor Hugo in the novel „Wretched” He wrote about the Battle of Waterloo: the inexplicably overcast skies were enough to bring the world down. We are now one step closer to understanding Tambora’s role in the battle unfolding póworld further – noted Genge.
After the Battle of Waterloo, Napoleon had to abdicate again, and his army ceased to exist. Bonaparte himself was exiled to the island of Saint Helena, where he pólater died. The battle is considered one of the most important battles in the history of the world. The disaster of the Frenchóin sealed, as it were, the resolutions made at the Congress of Vienna establishing a new order in Europe.